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Determining Which Spectral Bands Are Highly Correlated with Photosynthetic Capacity of a Poplar PlantationTree breeding can produce many genotypes; however, it can be difficult and time consuming to determine which ones exhibit the best traits for productivity. Therefore, this study attempted to identify the specific wavelengths of reflectance that can be used to estimate photosynthetic capacity of poplar genotypes from various taxa. CO2 response curves were used to estimate photosynthetic capacity parameters including the Rubisco-limited rate of carboxylation (Vcmax), the maximum rate of electron transport (Jmax), triose phosphate utilization (TPU), mesophyll conductance (gm) and stomatal conductance (gs). While collecting the photosynthesis data, a handheld radiometer which can detect 512 bands ranging from 350 nm to 1050 nm, was used to measure leaf reflectance. Leaf areas were determined, and leaves were dried to estimate leaf mass per unit area (LMA). Stepwise linear regression was conducted to determine the specific bands associated with photosynthesis parameters. Preliminary results showed that wavelengths of 410, 417, 418, 420, 423, 432, 447, 449 nms were correlated with TPU (R2 = 0.90); 407, 408, 410, 415, 417, 425, 432, 434, 435 and 437 nms with Jmax (R2 = 0.77); 407, 408, 410, 417, 425 and 429 nms with Vcmax (R2 = 0.74); 294, 301, 303, 308, 314, 316, 318, 323, 348 and 353 nms with gm (R2 = 0.68); 767, 773, 775, 784, 790, 798, 802 and 804 nms with LMA (R2 = 0.60); and 1042, 1068 and 1072 nms with gs (R2 = 0.60). Therefore, remotely sensed spectral reflectance data can be used to quickly estimate photosynthetic parameters of various poplar genotypes to better select high performing varietals and taxa. Presented by Thu Ya Kyaw, Mississippi State University, at the 2019 SAF National Convention, Louisville, KY.
Determining Which Spectral Bands Are Highly Correlated with Photosynthetic Capacity of a Poplar Plantation
Comparing Tree Species Diversity, Richness, and Similarity across Two FIA Cycles in South CarolinaConstant change occurs in the overstory, understory and forest floor species structure, composition, richness, and diversity under a variety of natural and manmade factors regardless whether the forests are managed. Forest information collected on forest inventory plots during two 5-year measurement cycles were used to assess changes in species diversity, due to environmental factors, owner objectives and forest management practices. Margalef’s index, Shannon-Weaver index and Sorenson’s index were used to estimate diversity, richness and similarity in species composition from one cycle to the next. To estimate the magnitude of changes in diversity we used the Shannon index to calculate the effective number of tree species (ENS). Loblolly pine is the dominant species in South Carolina forests, followed by sweetgum, and red maple. At the ownership level Loblolly pine remain the dominant species in private and federal forests, but less dominant in the state forest. Private forests had the highest richness and also the highest drop in richness (5.79%). Ownership objectives and forest management practices resulted in species diversity variation from 2.56 to .3.53 (Shannon), and from 13 to 34 trees (ENS). State forests had the highest Shannon diversity (3.53), and ENS, while private forests had the lowest diversity (2.56). Results showed a drop in diversity in all forests, between the two cycles. State forests had the lowest drop in diversity (1.70%), followed by federal forests (1.84%), and private forests (3.52%). Our results provide forest professionals an overview of the status of the forest, so they may determine best management practices. Presented by Dumitru Salajanu, US Forest Service, at the 2019 SAF National Convention, Louisville, KY.
Comparing Tree Species Diversity, Richness, and Similarity across Two FIA Cycles in South Carolina
Bettering Chinese Tallow Management: Six Years of Response to Several TreatmentsChinese tallow (Triadica sebifera) is an invasive tree that was introduced into the Southeast. Tallow can replace native forests. The traditional method of controlling Chinese tallow is an application of herbicide. A study was initiated in 2012 testing four treatment combinations to reduce Chinese tallow and monitor native species. Treatments included herbicide (H), mastication and herbicide (MH), herbicide and prescribed fire (HF), mastication, herbicide, and prescribed fire (MHF). The effects of these treatments on the overstory (>1.18in DBH), sapling (0-1.18in DBH), and herbaceous layer ( overstory Chinese tallow abundance from an average of 169 (±44) tallow per acre in 2012 to 7 (±8) in 2018. Herbicide alone had reduced overstory Chinese tallow from 157 (±-61) per acre in 2012 to 4 (±1) in 2018. Mastication’s success resulted from a decreased shrub abundance pre-herbicide application, making herbicide application more effective. The benefits from mastication are wearing off. No treatment was more successful in controlling sapling-sized Chinese tallow (p = 0.810). In addition to reducing tallow abundance, treatments reduced native shrub abundance. Native shrub populations in 2014 and 2015 were lower than 2012(p < 0 .001, p < 0 .001), but not 2018 (p = 0.11). This demonstrates that native shrubs are recovering from the treatments. Seedling-sized Chinese tallow decreased in all treatments, average percent coverage ranged was 3.5%-1.5% in 2012, to 0.2-0.3% in 2018. Presented by Calvin Norman, Clemson University, at the 2019 SAF National Convention, Louisville, KY.
Bettering Chinese Tallow Management: Six Years of Response to Several Treatments
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